NW Europe to E Siberia, also isolated populations in Iceland & Greenland; extinct in SW Europe; has bred as far S as N Israel
1,835-2,000 pairs (80% in Poland, Germany, Finland & Sweden)
Least Concern (not currently threatened)
Annex 1 of Birds Directive (species of conservation concern)
France (<1950), Ireland (<1910), Italy (<1960), Albania (c1965), Moldova (c1975)
Scotland (1975-present), 33 breeding pairs in 2006
CITES 1. Previously classified as Near-Threatened (BirdLife 2000) but recently downlisted to Least Concern due to continued population recovery in most parts of its range. However. populations still threatened or vulnerable in some countries. Declined historically from 19th century and extinct in parts of range inc. Britain, Ireland, W Europe. Recovery in late 20th century following formal protection as well as banning of DDT especially in Baltic. Population still probably expanding in Norway (c2,500 pairs) and Poland (600+ pairs). Successful reintroduction to Scotland. Rentroduced Republic of Ireland in 2007.